- What is Special Revelation? A direct communication from God is called Special Revelation.
- What is General Revelation? The EVIDENCE of God in his creation are usually called General Revelation. God can be seen in nature and the universe. Romans 1:19-23
- What is Inspiration?
Inspiration is a special Revelation: Can be Oral or Written work of the holy spirit in chosen individuals by which the person is moved to speak or write in his own idiom/speech the very words of God without error in fact, doctrine, or judgment.
The term inspiration is defined as “ God’s power enabling man to accurately record the truth revealed. The Bible writers claim to write under the Direct influence of the HolySpirit.
- What is meant by Natural Inspiration? Is focus is a higher order of human ability. Proponents of this view say that Bible Writers were no more inspired than were secular writers. Holding this view discredits God.
- What is Partial Inspiration? This view concludes that the Bible contains God’s Word but that much of it is not God’s Word, especially when it disagrees with current ideals of the scientists. The problem with this view is who determines what is or what isn’t the word of God.
- What is the Mechanical Inspiration? This view ignores human instrumentality in the preparation of the scripture. They claim that the writers were like robots whom God used to write what he dictated
- What is meant by Human Expression as related to inspiration? This means that inspiration do not destroy the Scripture writer’s individualities and literary styles. This accounts for the differences found in the gospels. The Holy ghost employed all the faculties of the biblical writers and worked through them.
- What is the time of Writing for the Old Testament according to the book? 1400B.C to 400B.C
- Who was the first writing Prophet? Moses
- What is Verbal Inspiration?
It is the entire text of scripture or spoken words that are a product of Gods mind expressed in human terms.
- What is Devine Dictation? It is the very words that God put in the writers mouth. (see Daniel 12:8-9 - 1 Peter 1:10-12)
Plenary Inspiration means full and complete. It claims all Scripture to be equally inspired. II Timothy 3:16.
- What is meant by infallible? The Bible Incapable of mistake.
- What is meant by inerrant? The Bible is with out error.
The Bible is verbally inspired, it is infallible, it is inerrant in the manuscripts as they were originally written.
- What is the conservative view of infallible and inerrant?
Belief in the bible as the only infallible rule of faith and conduct.
- What is the liberals view of infallible and inerrant?
Belief in the bible as infallible, but allows errors of science and history.
- What is the narrow view of infallible and inerrant?
They say scripture contradict it self. They claim that human elements in scripture create issues with inerrancy.
- What is the meaning of Hermeneutics? Hermeneutics are the rules applied when interpreting the Bible. It says we must study the language, culture/customs, history, etc. to properly understand the Bible.
- What is meant by Autographs? They are originals ancient copies of the N.T. they were written on papyrus or leather scrolls
- Who was Jesus?
- John 5 Why did the Jews want to kill Jesus? They said he maketh himself equal to God and said he broke the Sabbath.
- Who wrote the things I write onto you are the commandments of the Lord? Paul said it in 1 Corinthians 14:37
- In 2 Peter 3: what was Peter referring to? Peter was warning them to be mindful of the words which were spoken before by the holy prophets, and of the commandment of the apostles of the Lord Jesus And to ignore the mockers who made mockery about the coming of the Lord. Peter was claiming the Apostles inspiration equal with that of the Old Testament prophets.
- What foundation was the Christian Church build from? The church was establish on the day of Pentecost. It s founders and leaders were chosen by Jesus Christ.
- Who wrote the Pentateuch? Moses
- What else was Moses credited for writing? Moses wrote Psalm 90.
- When was Moses probably born? Moses was born able 1520B.C.
- How old is the book of Job? It is thought to be before Moses. The book says 1400BC? But my NIV says approx 2000-1800BC.
- When did David live? David lived about 1000B.C.
- What are the name of two prophets mention in Psalm? Asaph the seer, and Heman the seer (1 Chronicles 25:5 and 2 Chronicles 29:30
- What did Solomon write? Solomon wrote Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, and most of Proverbs.
- What is the theme Song of Solomon?
- How many divisions is the English O.T. arranged in? O.T. is arranged in five divisions: Law (5books), History (12 books), Poetry (5books) Major Prophets (5books), and Minor Prophets (12books).
- How many divisions is the Hebrew O.T. arranged in? Hebrew O.T. is arranged in three divisions: Law, Prophets, and the writings.
- When was the Apocrypha written? I was written during the inter-testamental period. The only books dated are two books of Maccabees 165B.C.
- What evidence did the Dead Sea scrolls provide as related to the Apocrypha? Fragments of the Apocrypha was found but not receive or quoted as Scripture.
- What did Luke write as related to N.T.? Luke wrote the Gospel of Luke and Acts of the Apostles.
- Who is William Ramsey? He was a professor that taught that the N.T was myth and believed it. He went the Middle to prove it, but came out believing the N.T. He was of the supports of Luke writings . He researched Luke’s writings down to small details.
- Who was target audience for Matthews Gospel? Matthews was written with special attention to the Jews. He made have publish it in Aramaic and Greek. Because both languages were used in Palestine.
- Who wrote the book of Mark? According to Papias Mark wrote the Gospel of Mark, as Peter’s helper or interpreter in Rome. Justin, Irenaeus, Clements of Alexandria agrees. Mark wrote to the Gentiles, probably the Romans who Peter ministered.
- How many books are in the O.T? and how many ar in N.T.? Total? 39 O.T 27 N.T. 66 total.
- Who where the early church fathers?
- Clement, Bishop of Rome 95A.D. Wrote a letter to Corinthian & referred to the apostles. Peter & Paul. He said that “The blessed Apostle Paul wrote to the Corinthians `under the inspiration of the spirit` … a man who they have approved.
- Ignatius, Bishop in Antioch 107 or 117A.D. (martyred) He thought highly and referred to the apostles. Peter & Paul. He wrote “I do not as Peter and Paul issues commandments unto you I am but a condemned man”.
- Papias, 140AD. He interviewed people that had personally heard the apostles (about seven). He wrote a five-volume book about the Gospel and how it was written.
- Justin Martyr (Martyred for his faith) 145A.D. Seven of his books remain.
- Polycarp (Martyred in 155A.D.) In his youth he had known the Apostle John. He wrote to the Philippians in 118A.D. He quoted from about half the books in the N.T. He referred to the apostles as parallel to the O.T. Prophets. He did not compare himself to the glorified Paul.
- Ireneaus, 170A.D. His writings are important because he was a student of Polycarp who was linked closely with the Apostle John. He writing covers more than 250 pages of large English text. He was the first father to make full use the N.T. in his writing.
- Melito, Bishop of Sardis 170A.D. He listed the O.T books paralleling to ours, but he excluded the Apocrypha.
- Origen, Bishop of Egypt 250A.D. excluded the Apocrypha.
- Jerome, translated the Apocrypha into Latin. But he said the Apocrypha was noncanonical.
- Tertullian of North Africa 200A.D. Known as the Father of Latin Christianity. He was the first to write a body of Christian literature in Latin.
Clements of Alexandria, 200A.D. He quoted from most of the O.T. and The N.T
- What Church Father wrote about inerrancy?
Justin Marty in 148 A.D. “ I am entirely convinced that no scripture contradicts another.”
- What is the meaning of A.D.?
The abbreviation for the Latin phrase Anno Domini, "in the year of the Lord," used to date events that happened after Christ's birth. "AD" is often used before the number of the year. The initials CE (Common Era) are sometimes used for the traditional AD
- What was the function of a Prophet?
Receive and speak the word of God to Men. Can be Oral and Written
A prophet was a man called of God to receive special revelation from him. (2 Peter 1:21)
- What is an example of dictation in the church?
An example of dictation is the Roman Catholic Council of Trent in 1545 that said in Latin that the scriptures were dictante. However dictante simply means “spoken” or “said”
Chapter 2 Why Christians Believe the Bible – Old Testament
- Why should we believe the Bible Old Testament? Jesus Believed it. The apostles believed it. Jesus and the Apostles taught from it. They accepted the O.T. as the true and trustworthy Word of God.
- On who or what scriptural authority can we see Moses as the author of the Pentateuch, the first five books of the O.T? Jesus’ authority (John 5:46,47)
- What was the Old Testament books known as?
1. The Scriptures (John 10:33-35) (see psalms 82:6)
2. Moses and all the prophets (Luke 16:31, 24:27)
3. The law and the prophets (Luke 16:17)
- How did Christ ground his claim on Deity?
He ground his claim upon scripture – unbroken scripture (psalms 82:6)
- What scriptures did Jesus use to banish Satan in Matthews 4: 4,7,10?
Deuteronomy 8:3 (bread) Deuteronomy 6:16 (tempt) Deuteronomy 6:13 (worship)
51. What did Jesus mean when he spoke about the “jot and tittle in Matthews 5:17-19, Luke 16:16-17? Examples Genesis 3:15, Isaiah 7:14, Luke 24:27 (see: John 8:44, Acts 13:10, Romans 16:20, Hebrews 2:14, Revelations 12:17, I John 3:8)
- Did Jesus contradict the O.T Law (scripture) in Matthews 5:43? No. It is a matter of “said” verse “ written” See Leviticus 19:18 Only the first part of the quotation is from the O.T. scripture “Thou shall Love thy Neighbor”. The last part is not in the scripture at all. Jesus was not contradicting scripture he was contradicting the Pharisees. The Pharisees mis- interpreted Psalms 139,19-22 and 140:9-11. They made the mixture an oral Law. But it was not the written law.
- What Scripture Did Jesus read when he began his ministry in Capernaum? He read Isaiah 61: 1-2 9:1-2 (see Luke 4:16-19,21 and Matthews 4:12-16) The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me”
- What type of attitude did Jesus have as related to the O.T.? Jesus attitude was one of submission to scriptures Mark 14:49 “All scripture must be fulfill.”
- Give some examples that Jesus accepted the O.T. acts, teachings, history, and doctrine:
Jonah and the big fish (Mat. 12:40), Creation Adam and Eve by God (Mk. 10:6), Noah’s ark (Matt. 24:38), Lot’s wife (Luke 17:32). E referred to these and more.
- What did Paul in his last letter charge Timothy in his second letter to Timothy? “Preach the Word” (2 Timothy 4:2) and reminded him that “All scriptures is given by the inspiration of God ….” (2 Timothy 3:16). All Scripture is God Breathed.
- What Scripture was Paul referring to 2 Timothy 3:16? The Old Testament from Genesis to Malachi. The O.T. pointed to Jesus Christ.
- Explain what the Bible is not? The Bible is not a collection of stories, fables, myths. or merely human ideas about God. It is not a human book.
- Explain the process of Inspiration? Through the Holy Spirit, God revealed his person and plan to certain believers, who wrote down his message for his people (2 Peter 1:20-21 No private interpretation).
- Were the Biblical writers like robots? No. The writers wrote from their own personal, historical, and cultural contexts. They used their own mind, language, talents, and style, However, they wrote what God wanted them to write. God was in control. (NIV page 2615 foot notes 0n 2 Tim 3:15-17)
- What did Peter in his last epistle (letter) warn believers before his death as related to the O.T.?
Peter warn the believers that the must understand “that no prophecy of scripture is of any private interpretation. For the prophecy came not in old times by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by Holy Ghost.” (2 Peter 1:20-21 No private interpretation).
- What Apostle declared that David was a prophet and predicted Christ in the O.T. Scripture Psalms 16? Peter declared that David was a prophet in Acts 2:30-31.
- What did Jesus say about David as related to the O.T. scripture in Psalms 110? Jesus said David wrote by the Holy Spirit Mark 12:36.
- What Apostle quoted Isaiah as related to the Holy Spirit in the O.T. Scripture Isaiah 6? Paul quoted Isaiah in Acts 28:25-26 “ Well spake the Holy Ghost by Esaias the prophet unto our fathers, Saying, Go unto this people, and say, Hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and not perceive:”
- Name another N.T scripture that reference the prophets of the O.T? Hebrews 1:1-2. “God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, Hath in these last days spoken unto us by [his] Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;”
- What is the doctrine that Jesus taught usually called? Verbal Inspiration. Jesus taught that the (39) books Old Testament books, known as “ the law and the prophets,” were the revealed Word of God, true and without error in even in detail. On his authority we accept it.
- What were prophecies intended to prove? Prophecies are the evidence of the supernatural character of the Bible. They were intended to prove that God had spoken.
- What was the important of the Dead Sea Scrolls? The Dead Sea scrolls Discovered in 1947 now gives up writings that are closer to the autographs writing of the prophets. Manuscripts were found that can be dated between 200BC and 300BC.
- What was the earliest dated O.T. manuscripts before the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls? 900A.D was the earliest Hebrew copies of the O.T. that was available.
- Have other books, not depended on the Bible, been found that provide such predictions as the Bible? No. not the
- Koran or sacred books of the east.
- Christian Science book
- Science and Health, with key to the Scriptures
- Books of Greek Philosophy
None of these attempt what the Bible gives in hundreds of places scattered through all its major divisions.
- What proof is there that Jesus taught the same thing about the O.T after his resurrection as he did before? Luke 24:13-31 “And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself. “
Chapter 3 Why Christians Believe the Bible – New Testament
- What was the earliest N.T. document? Manuscript evidence says the earliest N.T. document was James 60AD.
- What is the earliest Copies of the Septuagint that exist today? About 365A.D.. These contain the Apocrypha, but there is no evidence that earlier contained it.
Silent Period/Intertestamental|400 years<------>|
General Church Fathers Writings|95-100AD<----->150AD|
More Extensive Church Fathers Writings |150AD<----->200AD|
CRONOLOGY OF SOME CHURCH FATHERS AND WRITING
95A.D Clements of Rome. 117A.D Ignatius, 117A.D Polycarp’s letter, 130A.D Epistle of Barnabas, 145A.D Papias
145A.D Justin Martyr, Barnabas, Shepherd of Hermas, Teaching of Twelve Apostles
This covers the literature written to about 145A.D: Epistle of Barnabas,Teaching of the Twelve Apostles (Didaches),The Shepherd of Hermas, and The Gospel of Truth. This is about fifty years after the last Apostles Death.
160A.D Epistles of Hermas and the Didache
170A.D.: A work by Irenaeus 250 large pages of English text (He was a pupil of Polycarp who new John).
170A.D. The catalog of N.T. book called the Muratorian Fragments (parts destroyed).
200A.D writings by Tertullian of North Africa and Clements of Alexandria.
Church Fathers |95-100AD<----->200AD|
Constantine Conversion| 313A.D
Rome Fell |410A.D.
Mohammed Born| 570A.D
Koran written about |632A.D
Roman Catholic Church birth | 590A.D
SEA SCROLL: BIBILCAL SCROLL DATED
Silent Period/Intertestamental|400 years<----|--------|-------|-------|------------>|
Isaiah Scroll copy |125B.C
Copy of Ecclesiastes |1500B.C
Copy of Daniel |200B.C
Fragments of Job, Jeremiah, Samuel, and Psalm |200B.C
Fragments of Psalm |300B.C (unofficially)
The Dead Sea Scrolls are remarkably like our Hebrew Bible. They prove that those who copied the Hebrew Bible through all the years back to the second century before Christ did an extremely careful job. It establishes that our Hebrew Bible, in nearly its present form, was used by Jews 200 years before Christ. It can be said that there is no event in Israel’s history that made any change in their habit of copying Ezra’s day and 200B.C.
The Greek Septuagint, translated about 200B.C has been preserved in numerous copies made by Christian scribes and an English translation has been made. Thus, a student who does not know Greek and Hebrew can now compare the Septuagint with the King James Version.
- What are some of the old N.T. Manuscripts?
- The Alexandrian Text. This manuscript is called Codex Aleph or Codex Sinaitcus. They date from 300 A.D. era. It was discovered in 1859 in a monastery of St. Catherine on the slope of Mt. Sinai.
i. Another manuscript called Codex B was found in the Vatican Library about 300A.D. era. It is also called the Vaticanus.
- The Koine. Koine means “common”. It is also referred to as thr Textus Recptus.
- The Chester Beatty Pappyr 200A.D. It covers much of the N.T.
- The Rylands Papyrus 125A.D. It is almost identical to the Alexandrian Text.
- The Bodmer Papyri of John. It confirms the Alexandrian Text.
- What is meant by Textual Criticism? It is the study of ancient manuscripts, or lower criticism to distinguish it from destructive higher criticism.
- What is meant by Autographs? They are originals ancient copies of the N.T. they were written on papyrus or leather scrolls
- When did it become customary to use the form of the book? By 125 A.D. It was customary to use the form of a book called a codex instead of a scroll.
- What was the advantage of the codex (book)? It made it easier to combine many writing into one volume. These books were copied and recopied. In Greek.
- What Language was close to Hebrew? Syriac was close to Hebrew. The church in Antioch and the of Mesopotamia to the East wanted copies in Syriac 200A.D.
- When was the N.T. translated into Latin? About 200A.D. the church in North Africa wanted translations in Latin and an Old Latin translation was made. Later it was superseded by Jerome’s Vulgate.
- What was the main biblical language? Until 400A.D. Greek continued to be the main biblical language.
- What N.T copies are more closer to the writings of the Apostles? The Greek N.T. manuscripts copies are more closer to the Apostle writings than the Latin copies. Some Greek manuscripts date before Jerome.
- What was the two type of manuscript copies of the N. T.? cursives and uncials. Cursives were small letters and used in early copies. Uncials were Capital letters and became the practice about 300A.D. Several uncials have been preserved until today.
- What happen to many of N.T copies? When the Muslims invaded Egypt in the seventh century the burned the great Alexandrian Library of 100,000 volumes, including the treasures of antiquity. About the same time they burned the great Eusebian Library in Caesarea of Palestine of early Christian antiquity.
- Approximately how many copies survived? About 3,000 copies of the Greek N.T. or parts of it. Of these a dozen or more or over 1500 years old.
- Can anyone properly call himself or herself an apostle today? No. Acts 1:22 Beginning from the baptism of John, unto that same day that he was taken up from us, must one be ordained to be a witness with us of his resurrection.
- How many Gospel writing apostles are there in the N.T? Two. Matthew and John.
- What is the first epistle that Paul ever wrote? 1 Thessalonians.
- What are the Gnostic – Illegitimate Writings?
- Gospel of Peter
- Gospel of Thomas
- Gospel of Judas
- What are some of the writing by early Church Fathers?
- Epistle of Barnabas
- Teaching of the Twelve Apostles (Didaches)
- The Shepherd of Hermas
- The Gospel of Truth about 140A.D
- Did the Apostles quote, approve, or affirm other N.T. scripture writings? Yes.
a. Peter’s reference to Paul: 2 Peter 3:15-16 And account [that] the longsuffering of our Lord [is] salvation; even as our beloved brother Paul also according to the wisdom given unto him hath written unto you; As also in all [his] epistles, speaking in them of these things; in which are some things hard to be understood, which they that are unlearned and unstable wrest, as [they do] also the other scriptures, unto their own destruction.
b. Paul quotes from Deuteronomy and Luke in 1 Timothy 5:18 For the scripture saith, Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn. And, The labourer [is] worthy of his reward.
This quotation consist of two statements:
· The first part of the quotation is taken from Deuteronomy25:4: Thou shalt not muzzle the ox when he treadeth out [the corn].
· The Second part of the quotation is from Luke 10:7 And in the same house remain, eating and drinking such things as they give: for the labourer is worthy of his hire. Go not from house to house.
Paul is calling both scripture.
c. Jude quotes Peter in Jude 17,18: These are murmurers, complainers, walking after their own lusts; and their mouth speaketh great swelling [words], having men's persons in admiration because of advantage. But, beloved, remember ye the words which were spoken before of the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ;
2 Peter 3:3 Knowing this first, that there shall come in the last days scoffers, walking after their own lusts,
- Did Peter claimed the gift of inspiration for the apostles, equal to that of the authors of the O.T.? Yes.
2 Peter 1:16 For we have not followed cunningly devised fables, when we made known unto you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but were eyewitnesses of his majesty. 2 Peter 3:2 That ye may be mindful of the words which were spoken before by the holy prophets, and of the commandment of us the apostles of the Lord and Saviour:
- What does John’s Book of Revelation assure the reader? A Blessing or a Cursing.
1. Blessed [is] he that readeth, and they that hear the words of this prophecy, and keep those things which are written therein: for the time [is] at hand. (Rev1:3)
2. For I testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this book, If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book: And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the book of life, and out of the holy city, and [from] the things which are written in this book. (Rev22:18-19)
- What is the meaning of Canonicity? Canonicity is determined by God. A book is canonical because it is God inspired. God gives a book its divine authority. In other words a book is valuable because it was determined to be canonical by God. Inspiration determines canonicity. Propheticity determines Canonicity. See Norman Geisler pp210-211 “Introduction to the Bible”
- What is the meaning of the word Canon? It comes from the root of the word reed. The reed was used as a measuring rod, and came to mean “standard.” As applied to scripture , canon means, an official accepted list of books,
- When was the Roman Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity? Constantine the Great was converted in 313A.D.
- What did the Roman Emperor Constantine do after his conversion? He gave his famous Edict of Milan allowing the freedom of Religion.
- Shortly after the fall of Rome in 410A.D, how was the Empire divided up?
1) Eastern division had Constantinople as its Capital. The Eastern Empire used Greek during the Middle Ages
2) Western division had Rome as its Capital. The West used Latin.
- When was the Roman Catholic Church organize? 590A.D
- Who was the first Pope? Pope Gregory 1.
- When was Mohammad Born? Mohammad was born 570A.D.
- When was the Printing Press Invented? It was invented in 1456 by Johann Gutenberg.
- What was the first book to be printed? The Latin Bible was the first book to be printed on the Gutenberg Press.
- When did Columbus discover the New World? Columbus discovered the New World in 1492 and America became the world’s cradle of liberty.
- When was Martin Luther Born? The founder of the Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther, was born in 1493.
I Homo-lego-mena (Books saw as the same)
II Anti-Lego-Meno (Books the church spoke against)
IV Pseudo-Pigrapha (pseudo meansfalse)